Sounding solidarity: Music during a pandemic, from the plague to COVID-19

By Kimberly White

“Within a month of the outbreak, most of Milan’s nobility had fled. Conditions deteriorated throughout the autumn on both the medical and civic fronts. … The city’s plague hospital quickly filled to capacity, and more temporary straw huts for the sick were needed than could be built. Increasingly draconian measures were enacted – such as the purging of infected homes, closure of non-essential shops, and a general quarantine – all of which further exacerbated the city’s financial troubles.” 

Remi Chiu, “Singing on the Street and in the Home in Times of Pestilence: Lessons from the 1576–78 Plague of Milan,” in Domestic Devotions in Early Modern Italy, ed. Maya Corry, Marco Faini, and Alessia Meneghin (Leiden: Brill, 2018), 28.

Sound eerily familiar?  

Lieferinxe – St. Sebastian Interceding for the Plague Stricken

This was Milan from 1576 to 1578, when plague entered the city’s walls and killed approximately 15% of its population. Dr. Remi Chiu, a McGill alumnus (PhD Musicology, 2012), has devoted his research to exploring music and the plague in the Renaissance. In May 2020, I had the opportunity to interview Chiu to learn more about music practices during a pandemic. Despite the centuries that divide us, early modern Europeans’ experience with the plague is similar in many ways to ours with COVID-19. Like much of the world’s population in 2020, the Milanese struggled to find appropriate ways of practicing important rituals while reducing the risk posed by communal worship. Large-scale, devastating diseases like the plague were considered to be the work of God. In an effort to appease this punitive God, people participated in plague processions, which nevertheless posed tangible health dangers for the city’s inhabitants by exacerbating plague transmission.  

Chiu’s research reveals music’s essential role in the handling of the plague. Music was perceived, Chiu writes, as “an urgent and active curative with material consequences for the health and well-being of those assailed by the horrible disease.”1 Carlo Borromeo, the Archbishop of Milan, chose to relocate the plague processions from the street and into people’s homes, and, in doing so, music became the central focus. Bells would ring seven times a day, calling households to prayer. As the bells rung, people would sing litanies from their windows in a responsory manner, with some people singing and others responding. The call to sing regulated the long days of quarantine, uniting the populace in song. 

Borromeo Processing with Holy Nail by Gian Battista della Rovere

Jump several centuries ahead to March 2020: as much of the world was confined to their homes to contain the spread of COVID-19, music was used once again to bring people together and to provide comfort. During some of the most intense and frightening periods of the confinement, people took to their balconies to sing songs, to play their instruments, or simply to bang pots and pans to show solidarity with health care and essential workers. Here in Montreal, led by singer-songwriter Martha Wainwright, people sang the songs of Leonard Cohen, the city’s unofficial patron saint. 

For centuries, music has been recognized by doctors as essential to our psychosomatic health. Doctors, scientists, and researchers today are helping to re-establish this psychosomatic bond by revealing the powerful effects that music can have on our mental and physical health. But music’s healing reaches beyond the individual. “Social music making,” Chiu remarks, “has the effect of fostering solidarity in the community.” This was, in large part, the goal of the plague processions and the regular singing of litanies from windows during the Renaissance.  The same spirit informs our music making during the COVID pandemic. “When you are making music today on your balconies with your friends and neighbours,” Chiu continues, “everyone is following the same script, so to speak. So you have to really work together to achieve this communal aesthetic goal.” 

Milanese plague hospital

Living through the coronavirus pandemic has brought new insights to Chiu’s understanding of plague music during the Renaissance. He observes how music and music making help to regulate our sense of time, and just how important that can be when you are having to live in isolation for weeks on end. In 16th-century Milan, the public had an appointment to come to their window seven times a day to sing. Chiu draws a parallel with the scheduled flash mobs that occurred over the past few months. These flash mobs, he remarks, can be seen as an appointment to be social, giving people “temporal grounding in otherwise unmarked stretches of time.” 

While we are still in the middle of the coronavirus pandemic, and much remains to be seen, Chiu offers some thoughts about the different ways in which music might be instrumentalized. In addition to using music for fundraising, he suspects that music about the coronavirus will also be used for political purposes, which will be interesting to observe with the upcoming presidential election in the United States. And, when the pandemic is all over, Chiu believes that music will memorialize this extraordinary moment in history and the lives of those who have been marked so deeply by this disease. 

Want to learn more about Chiu’s research and the connections to the current pandemic? You can listen to my interview with him here. His research has also been featured recently in the mainstream media, with an article in The Guardian and in a fascinating NPR interview with Erika Funke on her program ArtScene. 

Biography 

Dr. Remi Chiu specializes in Renaissance music and the history of medicine. A McGill alumnus, Dr. Chiu began exploring the role that music played in the culture of plague for his doctoral dissertation, “Music for the times of pestilence, 1420-1600” (2012). He is Associate Professor at Loyola University Maryland and has since published his book Plague and Music in the Renaissance with Cambridge University Press (2017). His anthology of plague music, which functions as a companion to his monograph, is forthcoming with A-R Editions this summer. 

  1. Remi Chiu, Plague and Music in the Renaissance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017), 5.

Unruffling One’s Feathers: Finding Solace in Birds and Music

By Daniel Lavigne, Senior Documentation Technician

A Silent Spring?

Living in Montreal during the ongoing coronavirus pandemic has given the words “silent spring” a new twist.[1] The streets are eerily quiet. All forms of traffic are significantly reduced. The lines outside of pharmacies and grocery stores are much quieter than those previously outside of music venues and clubs. Yet if you listen closely you may find that things aren’t as quiet as they seem.

Charles Collins. House-Sparrow. Watercolour painting, 1737. Taylor White Collection, Rare Books and Special Collections. CA RBD MSG BW002-670

The first light of day is like an on switch that triggers our well dispersed House Sparrow population. They shout at each other across the street in a manner oddly reminiscent of workers at a construction site. The sheer volume, however, can’t be explained by occupational hearing loss. Whole flocks cram into hedges packed like a rush hour bus to add their voice to what sounds like a massive rant. Higher off the ground, an American Robin begins a singing marathon and a Northern Cardinal, unwittingly complementing an evergreen, yodels its heart out. Somewhere in the distance a Downy Woodpecker lets loose a descending whinny. This is the dawn chorus and no two sessions are alike.

I have been birding (birdwatching) for several years now and have always found it therapeutic. With so many of our hobbies and passions depending on access to shared facilities, lately I have been extremely grateful for this hobby of mine. One windfall of the silence of the streets (and skies!) has been an increase in urban wildlife sightings at a global level. To give but one example, last month the McGill Chemistry Twitter account reported a wild turkey on campus. I won’t draw any strong conclusions here, but I feel the decrease in human activity is working two ways: clearly, nature is being scared off less, but the silence is also allowing us to perceive more.

Birding Basics

Charles Collins. Eastern Cardinal [male] / Northern Cardinal. Watercolour painting, 1739. Taylor White Collection, Rare Books and Special Collections. CA RBD MSG BW002-617

While generally seen as an older person’s activity, birding accommodates all levels of interest, effort and expertise. I mean, if Montreal can make lawn bowling cool (pétanque, bocce, etc.), why can’t we do the same for birding, a social distancing activity par excellence?

The single most important aid in birding is a pair of quality binoculars. Alternatively, a camera with a long-focus lens can make a good substitute. In any case, don’t be deterred if you have nothing but your raw senses. Besides, birding doesn’t have to be your focus. Bring a book or a craft and tune in to the nature around you. A few hours of exposure can leave a tangle of bird song in your head for the rest of the day.

Spring is hands down the best season for birding. With numerous species migrating and breeding, many birds are in their brightest plumage and easily seen when in deciduous trees that have not yet sprouted leaves. To help you identify birds and know what you can expect to find in a given area or habitat, download an app (I use Merlin Bird ID) or check eBird, a website run by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

Remember to keep your distance when the curiosity isn’t mutual: many birds are sensitive and appreciate their space. Furthermore, be mindful of your local COVID-19 recommendations. No need to go far. Since the lockdown I have observed 25 species within a few blocks of my Rosemont apartment, which isn’t located near any major hotspots. Chances are there are more birds in your area than you think. You can also bird virtually via online feeder cams, such as the real-time cams hosted by the Cornell Lab, or test your patience birding on Google Street View.

A Brief Survey of Bird Song in Classical Music

Peter Paillou. White-throated Sparrows [male & female]. Watercolour painting, approx. 1720-1790. Taylor White Collection, Rare Books and Special Collections. CA RBD MSG BW002-643

 

My passion for birds is closely tied to my love for music. Frequently when listening to music I will be reminded of a particular bird song, a connection that’s difficult to unmake. In some cases I can be positive that the artist never heard the bird in question. It’s unlikely that Mozart ever heard a White-throated Sparrow, a bird found only in North America. Yet in The Magic Flute I can hear its song in the Queen of the Night aria.

 

Birds have been a wellspring of inspiration for all forms of art and the classical music tradition contains some notable examples. The birds can be mythological or fictitious, as in Stravinsky’s L’Oiseau de feu. Other works take a generic approach to evoking bird song, aiming for a convincing effect, e.g. the Spring concerto of Vivaldi’s Four Seasons. Personally, I am more intrigued by compositions that quote bird song with varying degrees of realism and stylization. The Nightingale and Common Cuckoo are two birds quoted extensively by composers and appear together along with the Quail in Beethoven’s Symphony No. 6 (Pastoral), second movement.

Peter Paillou. Cuckoo. Watercolour painting, approx. 1720-1790. Taylor White Collection, Rare Books and Special Collections. CA RBD MSG BW002-458

 

Without question the composer most strongly associated with birds is Olivier Messiaen (1908-1992). Messiaen prepared transcriptions of bird song directly from nature and from recordings and worked them into numerous of his compositions. Readers who struggle with mornings may appreciate Messiaen’s interpretation of a dawn chorus, Réveil des oiseaux, a work for piano and orchestra made up exclusively of 38 bird songs.

 

The advent of sound recording technology introduced pre-recorded bird song into performances. The earliest instance of combining live music with pre-recorded sounds is Ottorino Respighi’s Pini di Roma (1924) in the I pini del Gianicolo movement, which included a gramophone recording of a nightingale. In 1972, Einojuhani Rautavaara went further in Cantus Arcticus (Concerto for Birds & Orchestra), which features field recordings made by the composer.

Charles Collins. Nightingale. Watercolour painting, 1737. Taylor White Collection, Rare Books and Special Collections. CA RBD MSG BW002-685

 

While it’s unlikely that we will ever see birds perform directly from scores, apparently you can start them off as instrumentalists. In 2015, 70 Zebra Finches played electric guitars at an exhibition at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. The installation by artist Céleste Boursier-Mougenot riffs on the universally familiar image of a bird on a wire.

Final Remarks

American Redstart, male. Photograph by Amelia Hagiepetros and used with permission.

The intersection of birds and music in my life has provided me with much insight and amusement. During this challenging period, my early morning birding trips before telework have given my days some excitement as well as structure. As the spring migration progresses, the staggered arrival of different bird species is an alternative way of marking the passage of time. It may be some time before concert halls re-open and dinner parties resume, but my hopes of seeing an Indigo Bunting or an American Redstart again are tiding me off. Although our lives may be lacking their usual diversity of activities, focusing on what remains is not without its benefits.

For the complete birdsong playlist: https://mcgill.ca/x/45J

[1] Silent Spring (1962) by Rachel Carson is an influential environmental sciences book that warns of the danger of pesticides and their impact on nature.

 

Locating online scores

Since the physical closure of McGill University and the Library in March, we have all been navigating new territory with regards to finding suitable and accessible resources for practice, performance, and research. One particular challenge that music students and faculty face is getting access to scores. However, there are several options available to the McGill community to locate online scores for perusal or even for printing. Here is a guide to some useful resources and websites beyond IMSLP and the Internet Archive. 

Online Score Collections (McGill community only) 

Classical Scores Library is a large collection of full, study, piano, and vocal scores and encompasses a wide range of classical music genres from the Medieval period to the 21st century. Scores can be viewed online, downloaded, and printed in full. You can access, for example, the study score of Mendelssohn’s op. 64 Violin Concerto, the full score of Mozart’s Don Giovanni, and a modern edition of Orlando di Lasso’s motet Videntes stellam Magi. Some editions even include individual parts for chamber music.

Browse by genre, time period, or composer, or use the Advanced Search function to search for specific works using keywords, opus number, instrumentation, or publisher.  

 

BabelScores is an excellent resource for exploring contemporary music. You can browse by instrument, genre, or composer, or use the Advanced Search function (under the Catalog tab), which can filter results by difficulty or the use of extended techniques. Once you have made your selection, you are provided with information about the work, the instrumentation, the full score (with an excellent zoom function and the ability to download a PDF), and a recording. You can even contact the composer by email! 

 

Publisher Websites (Open to the public) 

A number of music publishers offer access to online scores for perusal. You can create a free account on the Boosey & Hawkeswebsite and log in to view their selection of online scores.

Screenshot of the perusal score of Steve Reich’s Music for 18 Musicians (1976) from Boosey & Hawkes Online Scores Collection. Source: https://www.boosey.com

Although there are fewer online scores available for historical composers such as Brahms, Mozart, and J.S. Bach, 20th and 21stcentury composers are well represented in their online catalogue, including Leonard Bernstein, Elliott Carter, Unsuk Chin, Elena Kats-Chernin, and Steve Reich. 

Universal Editionincludes complete perusal scores of a selection of works from their catalogue. The range of works available for online perusal is fairly wide. Here, for example, you can view scores by Gustav Mahler, Alfred Schnittke, Luciano Berio, and Victoria Borisova-Ollas. There are also audio samples of some works. Not every work in their catalogue includes a complete perusal score, however, and, unlike the Boosey & Hawkes website, there is no direct link to their complete online score collection. That being said, it is definitely worth checking their website to see if they include the perusal score for a particular workYou can browse their catalogue by composer, work, instrument or genre. 

Screenshot of the perusal score of Victoria Borisova-Ollas’s Golden Dances of the Pharaohs from Universal Edition. Source: https://www.universaledition.com

Another option for finding perusal scores is ScoresOnDemand, provided by members of Wise Music Group. Publishers include Chester Music, Novello & Co, G. Schirmer/AMP, Edition Wilhelm Hansen, and Unión Musical. There are more than 5,000 scores available for perusal. Locating a specific work proves challenging, however, because the search functionality is limited. Choosing the tab “Stacks” is helpful: it groups the scores by composer, thereby allowing you to scroll through a more manageable list. You can follow ScoresOnDemand, or particular “stacks”, and receive updates when new scores are added. 

Remember that Music Library staff are here to answer your questions and to assist you in finding the resources you need for your coursework, practice, performance, and research. Please contact a Music Library staff member and we will support your needs as best as we can.  

 

Introducing Arvind at the Marvin Duchow Music Library!

Did you know the Marvin Duchow Music Library has over 200,000 music scores, recordings, books, journals, and online resources? And that the Library has a computer room, a highly specialized environment for music and multimedia creation and editing, which is available primarily to students enrolled at the Schulich School of Music? These are just some of the many fascinating discoveries I uncovered while working at the Marvin Duchow Music Library (MDML).

Hello! My name is Arvind Krishendeholl. I am a second-year student studying Flute Performance and Political Science and I am very excited to join the MDML team as both a Student Navigator and a Special Projects Assistant! Both of my roles at the Library can be summarized in one mission statement: to raise awareness about the wide range of services available to students, staff, and faculty at McGill.

Working at the MDML has been an excellent opportunity for me to learn about the essential role libraries play in helping students achieve academic and performance success. Not only is the Library a quiet space for students to study, but the unique noise level organization wherein each floor has a different sound level also offers students the possibility to meet for group work and meetings.The Music Library also has a large collection of music scores and texts. The ability to access such a large quantity of materials is vital to my studies as a student at the Schulich School of Music.

Did you know that if the MDML does not hold a particular work you are looking for, it can be borrowed from another university through the Interlibrary Loan service? I recently ordered a work from Harvard!

The Library can be a very exciting place to work. Not only do I get great work experience in developing my knowledge of the Library, I also love interacting with students to ensure that their inquiries and requests are resolved.

If you see me organizing audio equipment at the 4th-floor service desk or taking pictures of books for our new social media accounts, be sure to say hello! I would love to speak to you and make sure your visit to the Music Library is an enjoyable one.

Arvind’s position is supported by the SSMU Library Improvement Fund (SSMU LIF) and the McGill Music Undergraduate Student Association (MUSA).