In medieval legal transactions the use of the written word was just one mean of communication among many other, e.g. the spoken word and the ‘action’ of legal ritual. This work discusses fifteen cases, ranging from the early Middle Ages to the eighteenth century, and from England to Galician Rus’. It is is volume 22 of Utrecht Studies in Medieval Literacy (USML), the series edited by Professor Marco Mostert. You can find a detailed list of the series’ content at their website. USML series is a forum for publications on the history of all form of communications in the Middle Ages, non-verbal, oral, and written. You can find more about this book here.